Archaeological Sources of Indian history || Indian History pdf
➮ Some people in South India buried their dead with tools, weapons, potteries, etc. Such graves were encircled by a big piece of stone. These structures are called Megaliths.
➮ The earliest system of writings is found in the Harappan seals. (2500BC) However, there has been no success in deciphering it. They are pictographic scripts- ideas/objects expressed in form of pictures.
➮ Thus, the writing system of the Ashokan inscriptions (in Brahmi script) is considered to be the earliest (3rd AD).
➮ Ashoka’s views on dhamma and conquests of Samudragupta, and several others would have remained unknown without their epigraphs.
➮ We could not have known about most of the Indo Greek, Saka-Parthian, and Kushana kings without numismatic sources.
➮ Some coins were issued by merchants and guilds with the permission of rulers to prove that commerce had become important in the later history of Ancient India.
➮ The largest number of coins found in post-Maurya period trade had increased.
➮ Few coins from the Post-Gupta period trade had declined.
Punch-Marked Coins are the earliest coins of India and they bear only symbols on them.
➮ Each symbol is punched separately, which sometimes overlaps the other.
➮ silver and copper and rarely in gold.
➮ Kushanas issued mostly gold coins and numerous copper coins which are found in most parts of north India up to Bihar.
➮ Indian influence can be seen on them from the very beginning. We find many Indian gods and goddesses depicted on Kushana coins besides many Persian and Greek deities.
➮ issued the largest number of Gold coins.
➮ Guptas appear to have succeeded Kushanas in the tradition of minting coins. They completely Indianised their coinage
➮ kings are depicted engaged in activities like hunting a lion or rhinoceros, holding a bow or battle-axes, playing a musical instrument, or performing Ashwamedh yajna.
➮ In addition to epigraphic and numismatic sources, there are many other antiquarian remains that speak much about our past.
➮ Temples and sculptures are found all over the country right from the Gupta period up to recent times.
➮ These show the architectural and artistic history of the Indians.
➮ They excavated large caves in the hills in Western India which are mostly Chaitya and viharas.