August Declaration (August 8, 1940)
➮ With the outbreak of world war II in September 1939 and India’s automatic involvement in it without consultation, the Indian National Congress demanded a clear-cut definition of the British Government’s war and peace aims as applicable to India.
➮ Lord Linlithgow put forward a proposal that included —
(i) Dominion status in the unspecified future. constitution.
(iii) Expansion of governor -General’s council with the representation of the Indians.
(iv) Establishing a war advisory council.
(v) Made consent of minorities necessary for the adoption of the future constitution. (indirectly veto power given to Muslim League)
The Demand for Pakistan (1940)
➮ In 1930, Iqbal suggested that the frontier province, Baluchistan, Sindh, and Kashmir be made the Muslim state within the federation.
➮ Choudhary Rehmat Ali gave the term Pakistan in 1933.
➮ Muslim league first passed the proposal to separate Pakistan in its Lahore session in 1940.
Individual Satyagraha (October 1940)
➮ The rejection of the congress demands once again exasperated the congress as well as Gandhiji.
➮ On 13th October the congress working committee met in Wardha where Gandhiji unfolded his plan of individual civil disobedience.
➮ England was facing the most critical hour of her life
➮ By starting a mass movement Gandhiji did not like to embarrass the Government. So, he decided to offer individual Satyagrah simply with a view to registering his mild protest against the uncompromising attitude of the Government.
➮ Gandhiji selected his disciple Vinoba Bhave to inaugurate the movements. He stood delivering anti-war speeches and was arrested for four days.
Cripps’ Proposals (March 1942)
➮ After the fall of Rangoon to the Japanese, the British decided to send the Cripps Mission to India for constitutional proposals, which included.
(i) Dominion status to be granted after the war.
(ii) Setting up a constitutional making for India after the war whose members would be elected by the provincial assemblies and nominated by the rulers in the case of the princely states.
(iii) Defence of India would remain in British hands and the governor general’s powers would remain intact.
(iv) Gandhiji stated Cripps’s proposal as a “post-dated cheque on a crashing bank”.