Establishment of British Rules in india – Free notes for opsc

Last updated on December 7, 2023

ESTABLISHMENT OF BRITISH RULES

➮ The Carnatic Wars, Battle of Plassey and Buxar, Anglo-Maratha wars, Anglo-Mysore wars established British Supremacy.

THE CARNATIC WARS

➮ These were the Anglo-French conflicts.
➮ These wars were continued for 20 years from 1744 to 1763 A.D.
➮ First War (1744-1748) : French captured Madras
➮ Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle, (1748) ended the War of Austrian Succession.
➮ Second War (1749-1754): Dupleix aligned with Muzaffar Jung (Hyderabad) and Chanda Sahib (Carnatic).
➮ After initial reverses, Robert Clive emerged victorius.
➮ Godeheau signed the treaty of Pondicherry in 1755 with the English.
➮ Third War (1758-1763) : French, Count de Lally captured ‘Fort St.David’.
➮ French were defeated at Wandiwash (1760) under General Eyre Coote.
➮ Pondicherry was returened to French by the Treaty of Paris.

CONQUEST OF BENGAL

➮ Nawab Sirajuddaulah was against the misuse of Dastaks.
➮ Nawab Sirajuddaulah seige the English factory at Qasim Bazaar.
➮ On 20th June, 1756 Fort William (Calcutta) was caputred.
➮ The Nawab placed Calcutta under the charge of Manik chand.
➮ The Black Hole Episode – mass death of English soldiers in a chamber – took place at Calcutta.
➮ Calcutta recovered by Clive in early 1757.
➮ Battle of Plassey was fought on 23rd June, 1757.
➮ The English East India Company’s forces under Robert Clive defeated Siraj-ud-Daulah.
➮ Mir jaffar, Manikchand, Aminchand, Jagat Seth betrayed Nawab.
➮ Mir Jaffar was proclaimed Nawab of Bengal.
➮ The company recieved the Zamindari of 24 Parganas.
➮ The company recieved free trading rights in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
➮ Mir Jaffar was replaced by Mir Qasim in 1760 A.D. ➮ Mir Qasim-Shifted capital to Monghyr.
➮ Mir Qasim ceded Burdwan, Midnapore and Chittagong.
➮ Mir Qasim fled to Awadh and formed a confederacy.
➮ Shujauddaulah and Shah Alam were part of the confederation.
➮ Battle of Buxar was fought on 22nd October, 1764.
➮ Mir Qasim was defeated by Major Munro.
➮ The Battle of Buxar placed Awadh under the company.
➮ Mir Jaffar was again placed on throne.
➮ After the death of Mir Jaffar Nizamud- daulah was placed on the throne.
➮ Nizam-ud-daulah signed the Treaty of Allahabad in 1765 with Mughal emperor Shah Alam II.
➮ The company got the Diwani of Bihar, Bengal and Orissa.
➮ The Diwani was granted by Mughal Emperor.
➮ Clive introduced the Dual system of government.
➮ Warren Hestings ended the Dual system in 1772.

ANGLO MYSORE WARS

➮ First War (1766-1769) : Haider Ali defeated the British army.
➮ The Treaty of Madras Signed.
➮ Second War (1780-1784) : Warren Hastings attacked French port Mahe, which was in Haider Ali’s territory.
➮ Haider Ali led a joint front with Nizam and Marathas and captured Arcot.
➮ In 1781, Haider Ali was defeated at Porto Novo by Eyre Coot.
➮ Treaty of Mangalore (1784) was signed by Tipu Sultan.
➮ Third War (1789-1792) : Marathas and Nizam aided the British, Cornwallis captured Bangalore. By Treaty of Srirangapatnam, Tipu ceded half of his territories.
➮ Fourth War (1799) : Tipu enlisted himself as a member of the Jacobin Club, also planted a tree of liberty at Srirangapatnam. Lord Wellesley attacked and Tipu died.
Arthur Wellesley who was the brother of the Governor-General, also participated in this war.

ANGLO-MARATHA WARS

➮ First Anglo Maratha War was fought from 1775-1782 A.D. ➮ The Britishers signed Treaty of Surat with Raghunath Rao (1775).
➮ The Treaty of Purandhar was made in 1775.
➮ The Treaty of Salbai (1782) gave 20 years of peace.
➮ The Second Maratha war was fought from 1803-1806 A.D. ➮ The Primary cause was the Treaty of Bassein (1802).
➮ The Scindia and the Bhonsle were defeated.
➮ The Third Anglo Maratha War was fought in 1817-1818.
➮ The Maratha confederacy was completely destroyed.
➮ Peshwa Baji Rao-II was dethroned and pensioned off at Bithur near Kanpur.

ANGLO-SIKH WARS

➮ Period of political instability prevailed after Ranjit Singh.
➮ The First War was fought in 1845- 1846.
➮ Treaty of Lahore (1846) ended the War.
➮ The Second War was fought in 1848-1849.
➮ The Sikhs were defeated.
➮ Lord Dalhousie annexed Punjab in 1849.

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