Jainism Full Notes of Indian History – OPSC Exam

Last updated on December 7, 2023

JAINISM

➮ Jainism was founded by Vardhamana Mahavira.
➮ Mahavira was born in 540 B.C.
➮ Mahavira’s Birth place was Kundagram in Vaishali
➮ He belonged to the Jantriak Kshatriya clan.
➮ His father’s name was Siddhartha and mother’s name was Trishala, who was a sister of the Lichchavi prince Chetak of Vaishali.
➮ Mahavira was married to Yashoda.
➮ He left home at the age of 30 and wandered for 12 years.
➮ He is regarded as the 24th Tirthankara.
➮ Rishabha was the 1st Tirthankara.
➮ Parsavanath was the 23rd Tirthankara.
➮ Mahavira’s first disciple was Jamali.
➮ He attained Kaivalya on the bank of river Rijupalika near Jrimbhikgrama.
➮ In the course of wandering Mahavira met Mokhliputta (the founder of Ajivika sect).
➮ Ashoka’s grandson Samparati accept Jainism.
➮ In First century A.D. Mathura became the Centre of Jaina art and culture.
➮ The spread of Jainism in Karnataka is attributed to Chandragupta Maurya.
➮ Many Jaina followers went to south under the leadership of Bhadrabahu.
➮ These southern followers later formed the Digambra sect (lives nude)
➮ Those who remained at Magadha, under the leadership of Sthalabahu, formed Shvetambar sect (wears white garments)

FIVE MAIN TEACHINGS

➮ Non-injury (ahimsa)
➮ Non-lying
➮ Non-Stealing (asateya)
➮ Non-Possession (aparigraha)
➮ Observe continence (Brahamcharya). It was added by Mahavira.

JAINA LITERATURE

➮ Most of the literature is written in Prakrit.
➮ The jaina Literature includes, (1) The 12 Angas (2) The 12 Upangas (3) The 10 Prakirna (4) The 6 Chhedsutras (5) The 4 Mulasutras

JAINA COUNCILS

➮ First Council was held at Pataliputra by Sthulabahu in the beginning of the third century BC and resulted in the compilation of 12 Angas to replace the lost 14 Purvas.
➮ Second Council was held at Valabhi in the 6th (513 AD) century AD under the leadership of Devaradhi Kshamasramana and resulted in final compilation of 12 Angas and 12 Upangas.
Digambaras and Shvetambaras : After the death of Mahavira during the reign of king Chandragupta Maurya a severe famine led to the migration of some jains under Bhadrabahu to the Deccan. Sthulabhadra remained in North and allowed wearing white garments Bhadrabahu maintained nudity leading to division as Digambaras (sky clad or naked) and shwetambars (white clad).
Similarities between Buddhism and Jainism
➮ Both opposed Brahmanical domination and caste system but uphold the essence of Vedas, Preached Truth, non violence, celibacy and detachment from material comforts, believed in karma and rebirth and were liberal towards women.
➮ Aacharangsutra about rules and regulation for Jain Bhikshus.

         Differences between Buddhism and Jainism

 

Buddhism Jainism
Followers Monks Lay man
Salvation Moderate one Extreme one
Spread Died in India but spread to foreign lands Confined to India and survived
Ahimsa Liberal Policy Over-emphasis
Soul Did not believe in soul Belived in soul

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