Land Revenue System during British rule – Free Notes

Last updated on December 7, 2023


Zamindari System (Permanent Settlement)
➮ This land revenue system was introduced by Lord Cornwallis in 1973
➮ It was introduced in the provinces of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, and Varanasi.
➮ Zamindars were made the owner of the lands and given the rights to collect the rent from the peasants.
➮ The realized amount would be divided into 11 parts. 1/11 of the share belongs to Zamindar and 10/ 11 of the share belongs to East India Company.

Ryotwari System
➮ This land revenue system was introduced by Thomas Munro in 1820.
➮ Major areas of introduction include Madras, Bombay, parts of Assam and Coorgh provinces of British India.
➮ In Ryotwari System the ownership rights were handed over to the peasants.
➮ The British Government collected taxes directly from the peasants.
➮ The revenue rates of the Ryotwari System were 50% where the lands were dry and 60% in irrigated land.

Mahalwari System
➮ This land revenue system was introduced in 1833 during the period of William Bentick.
➮ It was introduced in Central Province, North-West Frontier, Agra, Punjab, Gangetic Valley, etc of British India.
➮ In this system, the land was divided into Mahals.
➮ Each Mahal comprises one or more villages. Ownership rights were vested with the peasants.
➮ The Villages committee was held responsible for the collection of the taxes.

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