Pre Historic Period of Indian History-OPSC Exam Notes

Last updated on December 7, 2023

Pre Historic Period of Indian History-OPSC Exam Notes

The prehistoric era ( Pre Historic Period of Indian History) refers to the time when there was no writing and development. It comprises five periods – Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic, and Iron Age. This is one of the important topics under Ancient Indian History for the OAS Exam.


☞ The Pre-historic phase can be roughly divided into 3 parts i.e., paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic.

PALEOLITHIC AGE (250,000-10,000 B.C.)
☛ Paleolithic Culture developed in the Pleistocene period.
☛ Pleistocene was the period when ice covered the earth’s surface.
☛ The main tools used during this period are handaxes, cleavers, Choppers, flakes, burins, and scrapers.
☛ Their tools were made up of hard rock called ‘quartzite’.
☛ The paleolithic sites are spread in practically all parts of India except the alluvial plains of the Indus and Ganga.
☛ The people of this age lived on hunting and gathering wild fruits and vegetables.
☛ Man during this period used tools of unpolished, undressed rough stones and lived in cave rock shelters.
☛ They had no knowledge of agriculture, fire, or pottery any metal.
☛ In the later Paleolithic phase domestication of animals was practiced.
☛ Homo sapiens first appeared in the last of this phase.
☛ It has been pointed out that Paleolithic men belonged to the Negrito race.

MESOLITHIC AGE (10,000-6,000 B.C.)
☛ The Mesolithic Age began around 8000 B.C.
☛ It was the transitional phase between the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age
☛ Blade, Mesolithic tools are microliths.
☛ Blade, Core, Point, Triangle, Lunate, and Trapeze are the main types of Mesolithic tools.
☛ Important sites of the Mesolithic Age are Bagor, Langhraj, Sarai Nahar Rai, and Birbhanpur
☛ Sites like Bhimbetka, Adamgarh and Mirzapur are rich in Mesolithic Art.

NEOLITHIC AGE (6000-2500 B.C.)
☛ The term ‘Neolithic’ was coined by Sir John Lubbock in his book ‘Pre Historic Times’.
☛ Neolithic men cultivated land and grew fruits and corn like ragi and horse gram. They domesticated cattle, sheep, and goats.
☛ Important sites are Gufkaral, Burzahom, Chirand, Mehargarh, Piklihal.
☛ Chopin Mando provides the earliest evidence of the use of pottery in the World.

☛ This phase is also called a chalcolithic phase.
☛ It is characterized by the use of stone and copper.
☛ Chalcolithic people were not acquainted with burnt brick.
☛ People used different types of Pottery of which Black and Red ware were the most popular.
☛ They worshipped Mother Goddess and Bull.
☛ They generally lived in thatched houses.

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