Religious Movements in Indian History free opsc notes

Last updated on December 7, 2023

RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS

SAIVISM

➮ The origin of Saivism can be traced back to pre-Vedic times. By the early centuries of the Christian era, it was a popular sect all over India.
➮ Siva was the principal deity of this sect. Siva was worshipped in the form of Linga.
➮ Tamil Sangam’s work refers to Siva as the greatest of all gods (mamudu mudalvan).
➮ Siva’s consort Parvati was adored as Sakti. In Satavahana kingdom Parvati was worshipped as Gauri.
➮ In Tamil country, Skanda was worshipped in the Murugan form.
➮ Ganesa was the younger brother of Skanda. Ganesa was also known as Vinayak.
➮ The most popular Saiva sect was the Pasupata sect.
➮ The Kapalika and Kalamukha sect developed much later.

VAISHNAVISM

➮ The principal deity of this sect was Vishnu.
➮ The cult of Vishnu in the early period was known by the name Bhagavatism. Bhagavatism owed its origin to the Upanishads. Bhagavatism arose around the Mathura region.
➮ Acharyas are the great leader philosophers of Vaishnavism who defended and popularised the religion. Some of the prominent acharyas are : Ramanuja, Chaitanya, Madhava, Nimbarka, Nathmuni, Yamunacharya.
➮ It was developed and popularised in the south by twelve saints known as Alvars.
➮ Nammalvar and Tirumalsalvar were the greatest of twelve Alvars.

CHRISTIANITY

➮ This religion was founded by Jesus Christ. He was born to Mother Mary and Joseph in Bethlehem near Jerusalem. His birthday (25th December) is celebrated as the holy festival, Christmas.
➮ His first two disciples, Andrews, and Peter were hanged in AD 33 by the Roman Governor Portius.
➮ Bible is the holy book of Christians and the sign of the ‘cross’ is their holy symbol.

 

ISLAM

➮ Hazrat Muhammad Saheb
founded the Islamic religion. He was born to Amina (mother) and Abdullah (father) at Mecca in AD 570.
➮ He was married to Khajida (a widow) at the age of 25 yrs. His daughter, Fatima, was married to Ali Hussain.
➮ Hazrat Muhammad attained supreme knowledge or enlightenment in AD 610 in the Hira Cave near Mecca. His teachings are compiled in the Holy Quran.
➮ 24th September AD 622, the day Hazrat Muhammad started his journey from Mecca to Medina marked the beginning of the Hijri Era
➮ He died on 8th June, AD 632, and was buried at Medina.
➮ After his death, Islam was divided into Shia and Sunni cults. His successors were known as Khalifa. The Turkish ruler, Mustafa Kamal Pasha, Kalifah ended the designation of the Caliphate in 1924 A.D.

ZOROASTRIANISM (PARSI)

➮ Parsi religion was founded by Prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra). His teachings are compiled in the holy book, Zend Avesta. His followers believed in one God, Arthur.

➮ Buddhism was founded by Gautama Buddha.
➮ Buddha was born on the Vaisakh Purnima day in 563 B.C.
➮ He belonged to the Sakya clan of Kshatriyas.
➮ His father was Suddhodana, the ruler of Kapilvastu.
➮ He was born in Lumbini in Kapilvastu.
➮ His mother was Mahamaya of the Kosala dynasty.
➮ Buddha got to Nirvana at the age of 35 years.
➮ Buddha got Nirvana at Uruvela on the bank of river Niranjana.
➮ Buddha gave his first sermon at Sarnath.
➮ Buddha’s first sermon is called “Dharma Chakraparivartana”
➮ Buddha died in 483 B.C. at Kushinagar.
➮ Kushinagar has been identified with village Kasia in the Deoria district of U.P.
➮ Buddha’s last words were “All composite things, strive diligently”.
➮ Buddha was brought up by his stepmother Gautami.
➮ After seeing an old man, a sick man, a corpse, and an ascetic, Buddha decided to become a wanderer.
➮ Asvajit, Upali, Mogallana, Sariputra and Ananda were five disciples of Buddha

Five Great Events of Buddha’s Life and their symbols
➮ Birth: Lotus and Bull
➮ Great Renunciation : Horse
➮ Nirvana: Bodhi tree
➮ First Sermon: Dharmachakra or wheel
➮ Parinirvana or Death: Stupa

Four Noble Truths
➮ The world is full of sorrows.
➮ Desire is the root cause of sorrow.
➮ If the desire is conquered, all sorrows can be removed.
➮ Desire can be removed by following the eight-fold path.

Eight Fold Path
(1) Right understanding (2) Right speech (3) Right livelihood (4) Right mindfulness (5) Right thought (6) Right action (7) Right effort and (8) Right concentration

Three Ratnas
➮ Buddha ➮ Dhamma ➮ Sangha

Code of Conduct :
(1) Do not covet the property of others
(2) Do not commit violence
(3) Do not speak a lie
(4) Do not indulge in corrupt practices

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