Round Table Conferences
1st Round Table conference (1930)
➮ It was the first conference arranged between the British and Indians as equals.
➮ It was held on Nov. 12, 1930, in London to discuss Simon Commission.
➮ Congress and most business leaders were kept away
Gandhi -Irwin Pact (1931)
➮ Tej Bahadur Sapru, M.R. Jayakar, and Srinivas Shashtri initiated efforts to break the ice between Gandhiji and the Governments.
➮ The two signed a pact on March 5, 1931.
➮ Gandhiji agreed to suspend the Disobedience movement and agreed to join the 2nd round table conference.
➮ The government on its part released the political prisoners and conceded the right to make salt for consumption in villages along the coast and withdrawal of emergency ordinances.
2nd Round Table conference (1931)
➮ Ramsay Macdonald was the Prime Minister of Britain.
➮ Gandhiji demanded control over defense and foreign affairs.
➮ Hindu Mahasabha demanded federal responsibility, which was opposed by the Muslim League and the princess.
➮ Ambedkar demanded separate electorates for Dalits, which was opposed by Gandhiji.
➮ The government refused to concede the basic nationalist demand of freedom on the basis of an immediate grant of dominion status.
Communal Award and Poona Pact (1932)
➮ In August the 1932 Mac Donald announced the proposal on minority representation, known as the ‘Communal Award’ which recommended —
(i) To double the existing seats in provincial legislatures.
(ii) To retain the system of separate electorate for the minorities.
(iii) To grant weightage to Muslims in provinces where they were in minority.
➮ The Communal Award declared the depressed classes also to be minorities and entitled them to separate electorates.
➮ Gandhiji was in Yervada jail at that time. He started fast up to death against it.
Poona Pact (Sep 25, 1932)
➮ Gandhi started fast from the jail due to giving the right of separate electorates to the Depressed class.
➮ He regarded the Depressed classes as an integral part of Hindu society.
➮ In anxiety to save his life, the Poona Pact with the following Gandhiji and Ambedkar.
(i) 148 seats were to be allotted to the depressed classes in the Provincial legislatures as against 71 promised by the communal Award and 18% of the total in the central legislature.
(ii) Ambedkar to accepted the principle of joint electorate.
➮ Leamders like Madan Mohan Malaviya, M.C. Rajah, and B.R. Ambedkar became active to settle issues.
➮ Harijan upliftment now become the principal concern of Gandhiji.
➮ An All-India anti untouchability league was started in September 1932 and a weekly ‘Harijan’.
➮ He decided to begin a 21-day fast for the Purification of himself and his associates for the Harijan cause.
Third Round table conference (November 1932)
➮ The third round table conference met in London in November 1932 congress boycotted it.
➮ It was attended by a much smaller number of representatives than before.
Resignation of the congress Ministries-
➮ Lord Linlithgow declared India to be at war without the prior assent of the central legislature.
➮ The congress ministries gave the resignation.
➮ The Muslim League celebrated the ‘Deliverance Day’ on the day of the resignation of the Congress ministries in the provinces.