South Indian dynasties free notes for OPSC exam
THE CHALUKYAS OF BADAMI (543-757 A.D.)
➮ The Vakatakas in the deccan were followed by the Chalukyas of Badami.
➮ The Chalukyas established their base at Badami (Vatapi) in Bijapur district of Karnataka.
➮ The Chalukyas claimed their descent either from Manu or Moon.
➮ Pulakesin-I (543-66): founder of the Chalukya dynasty, established a small kingdom with Badami/Vatapi in Bijapur District as its capital.
➮ Pulakesin II was able to check Harsha’s design to conquer Deccan.
➮ Aihole inscription is a eulogy written by his court poet Ravikirti.
➮ The Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited his kingdom.
➮ Pallava ruler Narsimhavarman I invaded the Chalukya kingdom, killed Pulakesin II, and captured Badami.
➮ Vishnuvardhan, son of Pulakesin II, founded the eastern branch of the Chalukyas with its capital at Vengi.
THE PALLAVAS (560-803)
➮ The Pallavas played an important role after the fall of Satvahanas in the 3rd century until the rise of the Cholas.
➮ The origin of Pallavas is a debatable issue.
➮ Pallava dynasty was founded by Simhavisnu in 560 A.D. ➮ Mahendravarman-I was defeated by Pulakesin-II.
➮ Narasimhavarman was the greatest king. He defeated Pulakesin II and captured Badami/Vatapi. So, took the title of Vatapikonda.
➮ Narsimhavarman also defeated Cholas, Cheras, and Pandyas, thus becoming supreme in South India.
➮ Narsimhavarman was a great builder, having constructed Mamallapuram and the various buildings here. During his reign, Hieun Tsang visited Kanchi.
➮ Narsimhavarman II constructed the shore temple of Mamallapuram and the Kailasnath temple of Kanchi. He sent embassies to China to encourage maritime trade.
➮ Nandivarman-II was a worshipper of Vishnu. He built Vaikuntaperumal temple at Kanchi.
➮ The last Pallava ruler, Aparajita Pallava was defeated by Aditya Chola.
➮ Kanchi, Pallavas capital was a great center of Sanskrit learning.
➮ Both Bharavi and Dandin, the authors of ‘Kirtarjuniyam’ and ‘Dashkumarcharitam’ respectively lived in the Pallava court.
➮ The scientific works of Varahamihira and the poetry of Kalidasa were well known in the Pallava country.
➮ Most of the kings were accomplished scholars and Mahendravarman-I himself wrote the famous burlesque ‘Mattavilasa Prahasana.’
➮ The Gangas were the contemporaries of the Chalukyas and the Pallavas.
➮ They ruled over a large part of modern Mysore.
➮ The region was called after them as Gangavadi.
➮ The founder of the Ganga dynasty was Konkanivarman Dharmamahadhiraja.
➮ The Gangas had matrimonial alliances with the Pallavas, Chalukyas, and Rashtrakutas.
➮ The Kadamba dynasty was founded by Mayur Sarman.
➮ The Kadambas ruled from Banvasi from 345 A.D. to 365 A.D.
➮ Kakusthavarman (435-455 A.D.) was the most powerful ruler of the dynasty.
➮ Kakusthavarman established matrimonial relations with the Gangas and the Guptas.
➮ The Cholas were the feudatories of the Pallavas
➮ The founder of Chola dynasty was Vijayalaya, who was at first a feudatory of the Pallavas. He captured Tanjore in 850 A.D.
➮ The greatest Chola rulers were Rajaraja (985-1014 A.D.) and his son Rajendra I (1014-1044 A.D.)
➮ Raja built a Saiva, a temple of Rajarajeshwara at Tanjore.
➮ Rajendra I assumed the title of Gangaikondachola and built a city called Gangaikondacholapuram.
➮ The Chola empire was divided into Mandalams or provinces and these in turn were divided into Valanadu and Nadu.
➮ Chola rulers marked their victories by erecting a number of Shiva and Vishnu temples.
➮ During the reign of Rajendra I a naval expedition was sent against the Sri Vijaya empire.
➮ The Bay of Bengal was converted into a ‘Chola lake’.
➮ Rajaraja gave his daughter Kundavai to Vimaladitya (Eastern Chalukya of Vengi) and restored Vengi to him.
➮ Rajaraja conferred the title of ‘Mahadandanayaka’ upon Rajendra-I for his victory over Pandyas & Keralas.
➮ Rajaraja-I started the system of land survey called ‘kadamb’.
➮ Adhirajendra was killed in a public revolt.
➮ Kulotunga-I of Vengi united the kingdom of Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi and Chola kingdom. His other name was Rajendra-II. He was given the title of Sangam Tavirtta (he who abolished tolls).
➮ Rajendra II was crowned in the battlefield of Koppam. He was given the title of Prakesari.
➮ The gopuram style was developed under the Cholas.
➮ The system of canals in the south is a contribution of the Cholas.
➮ Rajendra-I built a Shiva temple at Gangaikondacholapuram.
➮ The Cholas were famous for the bronze statue of Nataraja.
➮ Kamban wrote Ramayana. Sivagasindamani was also produced.
➮ Temple architecture in the south attained its climax under the Cholas.
➮ The style of architecture which came into vogue during this period is called Dravida.
➮ ‘Mandap’ was the pillared hall.
➮ ‘Garbhgriha’ was the room of the chief deity.
➮ Ceremonial dances were performed by Devadasis.
Administrative Units of the Chola Dynasty
|Kurtam||Group of villages|
Tripartite Struggle (Palas, Pratiharas and Rastrakutas)
➮ A number of powerful empires arose in Northern India and the Deccan between 750 A.D.-1000 A.D.
➮ The Gurjara Pratiharas, the Palas, and the Rastrakutas emerged almost at the same time.
➮ These three powers fought for supremacy over Kannauj.
➮ The Pratiharas emerged from Gurjaratra or South West Rajasthan.
➮ They resisted Araburincrusions from Sindh into Rajasthan.
➮ Pratihara dynasty was founded by Nagabhatta-I.
➮ Pratihara’s power was revived under Nagabhatta-II. He defeated Dharmapala near Monghyr (Mudgir).
➮ Their capital was at Mahodaya (Kannauj).
➮ The real founder and the greatest king was Bhoja (836–885 A.D.).
➮ Bhoja is also called Mihir Bhoja.
He defeated Devapala and got Kannauj back.
➮ Bhoja was a devotee of Vishnu and adopted the title of Adivaraha.
➮ The Pala empire was founded by Gopala in 750 A.D.
➮ Gopala was elected as the king by the notable men of the area.
➮ Gopala was succeeded by his son Dharmapala in 770 A.D.
➮ Palas established their rule in Bengal and Bihar.
➮ Dharmapala (770-810) was defeated by Dhruva (Rashtrakuta) and Nagabhatt II (Pratihara).
➮ During Dharmapala, two brothers Indra & Chakra clashed for Kannauj.
➮ Dharmapala revived Nalanda University, which had been famous all over the eastern world.
➮ He also founded Vikramshila University.
➮ Founded by Dantidurga in Deccan.
➮ Their capital was at Manyakhet or Malkhed near modern Sholapur (earlier at Ellora).
➮ Amoghvarsha ruled for 68 years.
➮ Amoghvarsha wrote ‘Kavirajamarga’, a book on Poetics in Kannada.
➮ Amoghavarsha first transferred the capital from Ellora to Manyakhet or Malkhed.
➮ Indira III (915-927) defeated Mahipala (Pratihara) and sacked Kannauj in 915, Indra was the most powerful ruler of his time.
➮ Rashtrakutas imported horses from Arabia, West Asia, and central Asia.
➮ In the Rashtrakuta kingdom, the directly administered areas were divided into Rashtras (provinces), Visaya, and Bhukti.
➮ The last ruler Karka was overthrown by Tailap, the founder of Chalukyas of Kalyani.
➮ Dantidurga built the Dashavatara temple at Ellora.
➮ Krishna-I built the Kailasa or Shiva temple at Ellora in the 9th century.
➮ The great Apabhramsha poet Svayambhu and his son lived at the Rashtrakuta court.