THE EARLY VEDIC PERIOD (1500-1000 B.C.)
➮ It is also known as Rig Vedic Age. Rig Vedic Age gives us knowledge about the Aryans they came in India from central Asia (Steppe region)
➮ The earliest Aryans lived in the land of ‘Sapta Sindhava’ i.e., the land of seven rivers. The early Vedic society was Pastoral.
➮ Cattle was the chief measure of wealth and a wealthy man was called ‘Gomat’.
➮ The term Aghanya or not to be killed has been used for cows. The Raja or chief is called ‘Gopati’. In the Rigveda, Godhuli is used as a term for a measure of time.
➮ Apart from Yava or Barley, no other grain is mentioned
➮ Indra was the greatest God of Aryans Agni occupied the second position. Varuna occupied the third position and he personified water.
➮ The Battle of Ten Kings ended with the victory of the Bharatas led by Sudas.
➮ Widow marriage and Niyoga prevailed in society. Important functionaries were Purohita, Senani, and gramini
➮ Important tribal Assemblies were Sabha, Samiti, Vidath, and Gana.
➮ Sabha performed judicial and administrative functions. King attended Sabha but was not elected by it.
➮ Samiti is mentioned nine–times in Rigveda. Samiti was presided over by the king. King was elected in Samiti.
➮ ‘Gana’ is mentioned for 46 places in Rigveda. The leader of Gana was called ‘Ganapati’.
➮ Dasyus were the most bitter enemies of the Rigvedic people.
➮ Rigvedic people were not aware of Iron.
➮ Agni was called Bhuvanchakshu.
➮ Gayatri Mantra is mentioned in the IIIrd Mandal of Rigveda.
➮ Asvins and Nasatyas were divine physicians. Yama was the Lord of the dead. Aditi is the mother of Surya. Varuna bears the title ‘Asura’.
➮ River Indus was the most important river in the Vedic period.
➮ River Saraswati was the most sacred river in the Vedic period.