The Marathas Empire – indian History notes

Last updated on December 7, 2023


➮ Shivaji was born in the fort of Shivneri in Poona in 1627.
➮ Shivaji belonged to the Bhonsle clan.
➮ Shivaji’s father Shahji Bhonsle was in the service of Ahmadnagar.
➮ Dadaji Kondadeo and Guru Ramdas had great influence on the life of Shivaji.
➮ Guru Ramdas wrote ‘Dasabodh’.
➮ Shahji gave Shivaji the jagir of Poona.
➮ Shivaji first captured Torna in 1646 A.D.
➮ Shivaji began his real career of conquest in 1656 when he conquered Javli from the Maratha Chief Chandra Rao More.
➮ In 1663, Shivaji injured Shaista Khan, the Mughal Governor.
➮ In 1664 Shivaji sacked Surat for the first time.
➮ The treaty of Purandhar was signed on June 24, 1665 A.D.
➮ Shivaji visited Agra in 1666,
➮ On August 29, 1666, Shivaji escaped from Agra.
➮ In October 1670 Shivaji sacked Surat a second time.
➮ Shivaji was coronated at Raigarh in 1674.
➮ Shivaji assumed the title of Chhatrapati Haindava Dharmodharak.
➮ Shivaji died in 1680 at the age of 53.
➮ Shivaji was succeeded by Sambhaji (1680-89)
➮ Shivaji introduced various administrative and revenue reforms called Ashtapradhan
➮ Provinces which were divided into prants which were further subdivided into parganas or tarafs.
➮ The cavalry was divided into two classes : the Bargis and Silahdars.
➮ Bargis were supplied with horses and arms by the state.
➮ Silahdars had to keep their own equipment.
➮ Chauth was 1/4 of the land revenue paid to the Marathas to that land would not be sullied to the Maratha raids.
➮ Sardeshmukhi was an additional levy of 10%, which Shivaji demanded on the basis of being the hereditary Sardeshmukh.
➮ Kathi was measuring in rods.
➮ Annaji Datto introduced various reforms in revenue in 1679.
➮ Chauth and Sardeshmukhi both were land tax collected from Mughal territory.


1. Peshwa General Administration; like Prime Minister.
2. Sar-i-Naubat Senapati
3. Mazumdar Accountant
4. Waqia-i-navis Intelligence, posts and household affairs.
5. Surnavis Chitnis Correspondence
6. Dabir/Sumant Foreign affairs and master of ceremonies.
7. Nyayadhis Justice
8. Panditrao religious affairs.

MARATHA PESHWAS (1714-1818 A.D.)

1714-1720 : Balaji Vishwanath
1720-1740 : Baji Rao I
1740-1761 : Balaji Baji Rao
1761-1772 : Madhava Rao Ballal
1772-1773 : Narayan Rao
1773-1774 : Raghunath Rao
1774-1796 : Madhava Rao Narayan
1796-1818 : Baji Rao II

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