The Mughal Empire Akbar(1556-1605 A.D.) indian History notes

Last updated on December 7, 2023

AKBAR (1556-1605 A.D.)

➮ Akbar was born in Amarkot in the palace of Virasal in 1542 A.D. Akbar’s full name was Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar.
➮ He was crowned at Kalanaur at the age of 13 years.
➮ Akbar defeated Hemu in the second battle of Panipat in 1556 A.D.
➮ Bairam Khan was his regent from 1556 to 1560. Bairam Khan was a Shia. He was assassinated by Mubarak Khan at Patan (Gujarat) on his way to Mecca.
➮ His chief advisor was Mir Abdul Latif.
➮ Laid the foundation of Fatehpur Sikri as his capital.
➮ Learnt the principles of Sulah-i- Kul from his teacher Mir Abdul Latif.
➮ In 1668, Chittor under Rana Udai Singh of Mewar was invaded. Here two Rajput warriors fought bravely against Akbar-Jaimal and Patta.
➮ In 1576 Akbar defeated Rana Pratap of Chittor in the famous Battle of Haldigati.
➮ In 1601 captured fortress of Asirgarh his last conquest Khandesh (1601)
➮ Tried to ban sati system, and legalised widow marriage. Increased marriagable age (girls 14 years, boys 16 years)
➮ Set up Ibadat-khana at Sikri for religious discussion, held on every Thursday evening from 1575.
➮ Later Ibadat-khana was opened to Scholars of all faiths.
➮ In 1579 Akabr read the Khutba (written by poet Faizi) in his own name like the Prophet and Caliphs.
➮ In 1579 proclamation of the Mahzar, all imams signed it where by he became Imam-i-Adil, the supreme interpreter of Islamic law in all controversial matters, it made him higher than a Mujtahid (interpreter of Islamic Law)
➮ In 1582 Tauhid-i-Ilahi (Divine monotheism) was initiated 80 years later it came to be called Din-i-Ilahi. It was sufistic.
➮ After returning from Gujarat campaign, Akbar appointed officials called Karoris.
➮ Akbar divided the empire into 12 Subas in 1580 AD.
➮ In 1605 Akbar died of dysentery.
➮ Buried at Sikandara Near Agra.
➮ Loan to farmers was called takavi.
➮ Started worshipping light (Prakash Pujas) in court.
➮ With the help of Raja Todarmal (revenue minister) began land settlement and launched Ain-i- Dahsala system.
➮ Issued round and square size silver coins called Rupaya and Jalali.
➮ Adopted Persian as court language.
➮ Laid foundation of Fatehpur Sikri in 1572-1580. Main Buldings of Fatehpur Sikri. Buland Darwaza, Diwan-i-Am, Diwan-i-Khas, palace of Sultana, Panch Mahal etc.
➮ Expert exponent of music. He played Nakkara (drum).
➮ His court musicians-Tansen, Baba Ramdas, Baz Bahadur etc.
➮ Famous painters in his court Khwaja Abdus Samad, Daswant, Basawan etc.
➮ Got Mahabharata translated into Persian as Razmnama.
➮ Contemporary Hindu scholars Ramdas, Suradas, Tulsidas, Raskhan, Abdur Rahim Khan- Khanan and Birbal (Raja Mahesh Das).
➮ Famous Persian scholars-Abul- Fazaal, Faizi, Budayuni, Abbas Khan Sarwani, Utbi, and Naziri.
➮ Akbar’s land revenue system was called Todar Mal Bandobast or Zabti system. Todar Mal was his Revenue Minister.
➮ Organised army and started Mansabdari system in 1575-1576.

Akbar’s social & Religious work
1. 1562 AD. End of Slave system
2. 1562 AD. End of ‘Haramdal’
3. 1563 AD. End of Pilgrime tax
4. 1564 AD. End of Jazia tax
5. 1571 AD. Eastablish of Fateh Pur Sikri & made it his capital .
6. 1580 AD. ‘Dahsala System’
7. 1562 AD. Din-i-Ilahi
Nine Gems of Akbar
1. Mullah do Pyaja 2. Abul Fajal 3. Todar Mal 4. Faizi 5. Birbal 6. Tansen 7. Abdul Rahim-Khan-i- Khana 8. Man Singh 9. Bhagwan Das

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