The Sangam Age – full indian hisotry notes for opsc exam

Last updated on December 7, 2023


➮ The word Sangam is associated with the assembly of Tamil Scholars and Poets flourished under the royal patronage of the Pandyan Kings at Madurai.
➮ The first Sangam was held at Madurai but its work has not survived. Its Chairman was Agastya.
➮ The second Sangam was held in Kapatpuram. Its Chairman was Tolkapiyar.
➮ The third Sangam was held in Madurai. Its chairman was Nakkirar.
➮ Tolkapiyam belongs to second Sangam.
➮ Tokapiyam is a work on grammar.
➮ The Sangam literature was compiled in circa A.D. 300-600.
➮ Thirukural of Kural by Tiruvalluvar is sometimes called the ‘fifth Veda’ or ‘Bible of the Tamil land’.
➮ Silpaddikaram literally ‘The jeweled Anklet’ by Ilango Adigal is an epic, deals with the love stories of Kovalan and Madhavi.
➮ Manimekhalai is written by Sattalai Sattanar, considered the ‘Odysseus of Tamil poetry’.
➮ Jivaga Chintamani, a third epic by the Jaina Tiruttakadevar.
➮ Roman king built a temple of Augustus at Muziris.
➮ Murugan was the God par excellence of the Tamils, also known as Subramaniyam.
➮ Yavan Priya is a Sanskrit terms for pepper.
Sangam Literature
➮ The word Sangam is associated with a college or assembly of Tamil scholars and poets flourished under the royal patronage of the Pandyan kings.
➮ The whole Sangam age is called Golden or Augustan Age. According to Tamil sources, the father of Tamil literature is ‘Agastya.’

SANGAM AGE (AD First-Third Century)


Kingdom Location Capital Emblem Famous port Famous Rules
North-East of Pandyas between Penner and Vellar rivers Uraiyaur (famous for Cotton trade) and Puhar Tiger Puhar Elara was the earliest known Chola king, ffe conquered Sri Lanka and ruled over it for 50 years. Karikala founded the capital city Puhar/Kaveripatnam and constructed embankment along Cauveri river.
Chera Part of Kerala and Tamil Nadu Venji of Karur Bow Muzris Todi, Bandar Udiyangera is one of the earliest known Chera rulers. This title of Udiyangeral was given to him because he served both the armies of KurukshetraWar, Senguttuvan / Red Chera, was the greatest Chera King, ffe invaded the north and crossed Ganga.
Pandya Southern most part of India Mudurai Carp Korkai, Saliyur Mudukudumi was the earlist known Pandyan ruler. Nedunjelian was the most important king of Pandya. He accused Kovalon of theft. As a result, the city of Madurai was laid under a curse by Kannagi (Kovalan’s wife).


Sangams Venue Chairman Surviving Text


1st Ten-Madurai Agastya
2nd Kapatapuran Alvai Agastya (founder Tolakappiyan (later chairman)) Tolakappiyan (Tamil Grammar)
3rd North Madurai Nakkirar Ettutogati Patinenki lakanakku, pattu-Pattu

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