The second stage of National Movement
➮ The main centres of revolutionary movement were three –
➮ The revolutionary movement started from Maharashtra in 1897.
➮ Tilak’s attempt to propagate militancy among the youth was the Shivaji and Ganapati Festivals.
➮ Tilak published journals –Kesari & Maratha.
➮ By the inspiration of Tilak ‘ the Acharya Bandhav Committee’ was established in Maharashtra.
➮ Chapekar Brothers – Damodar Hari Chapekar & Balkrishna Hari Chapekar established ‘Vyayama Mandal’ in Pune in 1896-97.
➮ Chapekar brothers were associated with a revolutionary institute – ‘Hindu Dharma Sangh’.
➮ On 22 June 1897 Chapekar Brothers shot dead plague commissioners Rand and Amherst in Pune.
➮ In 1899 V.D. Savarkar and his brother Ganesh organized a secret society named – ‘Mitra Mela’.
➮ They were co-accused in Nasik and Gwalior conspiracy cases.
➮ In 1904 Mitramela and Abhinava Bharat were merged.
➮ In 1909 District Magistrate Jackson of Nasik was assassinated by Anant Lakshman Kanhare.
Home Rule Society and India House and brought out a journal named ‘The sociologist’ in London in 1905.
➮ Madan Lal Dhingra murdered Curzon Wyllie in 1909.
➮ Madam Bhikaji Cama operated from Paris and Geneva and brought out the journal ‘Bande Matram’.
➮ In Bengal, the revolutionary movements were organized by the Bhadralok society.
➮ ‘Anushilan committee’ was the first revolutionary Institute in Bengal which was founded by P. Mitra, Barindra Kumar Ghosh, and Bhupendra Nath Dutta on 24 March 1903.
➮ Another Anushilan committee was founded by Pulin Biharidas in Dhaka in Bangladesh.
➮ Many newspapers advocated revolutionary activity like Sandhya by Brahmabandhav Upadhyaya, Vande Matram by Aurobindo Ghosh, and Yugantar by Bhupendra Dutta.
➮ In 1907, Avanish Chandra Bhattacharya wrote the book present strategy (Vartman Ranniti). This book advocated to youths to take military education.
➮ In 1908, Prafulla Chaki and Khudiram Bose attempted to murder Muzaffarpur Judge Kingsford.
➮ Prafulla Chaki committed suicide and Khudiram Bose was arrested and hanged on May 11, 1908.
➮ Aurobindo Ghosh, Varindra Ghosh, Ullas Dutta, Hemchandra Das, etc were involved in this case.
➮ Aurobindo Ghosh was released due to a lack of evidence after that he published an English paper ‘Karmyogini’.
➮ He became saint in course of time and set Ashram in Puducherry.
In 1911 the capital of country was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi. When the British king triumphantly entered the historic city of Delhi Chandani Chowk a huge ceremonial procession was taken out. As the procession passed through the crowded ‘Bazar of Chandni Chowk suddenly a bomb exploded as if to crack the sheel of viceroy’s. The bomb missed the target.
➮ The bomb had been thrown by a great patriot Ras Bihari Bose. He slipped away quietly.
➮ Under a fictitious name, he went away to Japan with R.N. Tagore and raised INA.
➮ Later he handed it over to the leadership of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.
➮ This incident is known as the Delhi conspiracy case. In this case, Amirchandra, Avadh Bihari, and Bal Mukund were hanged on in Delhi and Basant Kumar in Ambala.
➮ In Punjab, the revolutionary activists were Lala Lajpat Rai, Ajit Singh, Aga Haider Syed Haider Raza, Bhai Parmananda, Lalchand Falak and Sufi Amba Prasad.
Ghadar Party (1913)
➮ The Ghadar Party, which began as an association to protect and defend the rights of Indian settlers in the United States and Canada, later grew into a movement to liberate the country from the alien yoke.
➮ In 1907 Ramnath Puri established Hindustan Association in San Fransisco and edited ‘sarkular- i-Ajadi in urdu.
➮ The Lucknow session was important not only in that it brought the moderates and the Extremists together, it also led to an entente between the congress and the Muslim League.
➮ On 2nd October 1911 the partition of Bengal was annulled.
➮ The Muslim community in India was further disappointed by the hostile attitude of the British Government towards the sultan of Turkey during the Tripoli and Balkan wars in 1911, 1912 & 1913.
➮ They looked upon the Sultan as the Calipha of Islam and did not like that he should have been humbled by Italy and the Balkan powers through the connivance of England.
➮ The Participation of Turkey in the Great War on the side of Germany convinced the Indian Muslims that the British were not the real friend of Islam.
➮ The congress and the league decided to cooperate in formulating a common scheme of post-war reforms and in pressing its adoption by the British authorities.
➮ This session was presided over by Ambika Charan Majumdar.
➮ The architect of the congress-league was Jinnah & Tilak.
➮ The cooperation of the Muslims League was welcomed by INC at Karachi Session in 1913 under the Leadership of Nawab Sayyid Mohammad Bahadur.
➮ After Tilak’s return, having served a sentence of six years in Mandalay.
➮ A committee of its members was formed for Home Rule.
➮ On the recommendation of this committee, Tilak set up Home Rule in Belgaon on 28 April 1916.
➮ Tilak’s League had six branches and was restricted to Maharashtra, Karnataka, Central provinces, and Berar.
➮ A similar organization was set up in Madras in September 1916 by Annie Besant.
➮ Annie Besant’s League had 200 branches and covered the rest of the country, which was not included in Tilak’s League.
➮ The British authorities became seriously concerned about the Home Rule Movement in India.
➮ Circulars were issued prohibiting school and college boys from participating in the Home Rule Movement