The Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414)-Indian History

Last updated on December 7, 2023

The Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414)

GHIYASUDDIN TUGHLAQ (1320-1325)

➮ He ascended the throne after murdering Khusrau Shah.
➮ He was the first sultan to use term ‘Ghazi’ with his name.
➮ During Allauddin Khalji’s reign, he was crown as Kazi Malik, governor of Dipalpur
➮ He was the first sultan to start irrigation works.
➮ He died due to collapse of Pavillion.
➮ He built the fortified city of Tughlaqabad and made it capital of the empire.

MUHAMMAD BIN TUGHLAQ (1324-1351)

➮ He is one of the most controversial figures in sultanate history.
➮ His real name was Jauna Khan.
➮ During his reign, Delhi Sultanate reached its maximum territorial extent.
➮ He was called the ‘wisest fool’ by historian Isami.
➮ He fixed the land revenue at half the produce and not on the basis of actual produce but on arbitrary basis, this led to wide spread rebellion which was accompanied by severe famine.
➮ He instituted agricultural reforms by setting up a separate department of agriculture called Diwan-I-Amir-Kohi.
➮ He gave ‘sondhar’ and ‘Taqqavi’ loans to farmers.
➮ He died in ‘thatta’ where he had gone to quell one of the many rebellians that took place during his reigns
➮ Bahamani and Vijayanagar kingodm were formed during his reign.
➮ He was succeeded by his nephew Firoz Tuglaq.
➮ Ibn Batuta a famous traveller came to Delhi in the reign of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq in 1334 AD.
➮ Ibn Batuta has recorded the contemporary Indian scene in his safarnamah called Rehla.

FIROZ TUGHLAQ (1320-1325)

Works and facts about Firoz shah Tughlaq
➮ Irrigation extended massively by digging canals and wells.
➮ Gardens and orchard’s planted.
Established 1200 gardens around Delhi for grapes.
➮ As well as 23 taxes were abolished.
Only 4 taxes sanctioned by shariat were levied.
(i) Kharaj (1/10th of produce)
(ii) Zakat (Alms for poor Muslims)
(iii) Jaziya (poll tax on nonmuslims)
(iv) Khams (1/5th of the spoils of war)
➮ Jaziya was separated from land tax, earlier it was part of land tax.
➮ Jaziya was also imposed on Brahmins (earlier exempted) only women, children, disabled exempted.
➮ Sharb (irrigation tax) 1/10th of produce was imposed.
➮ Free hospitals (Darul Shafa), marriage bureau and employment bureau were set up.
➮ Officials were paid by iqta grants, very few were paid in cash.
➮ In 1353 led campaign against Haji Illyas of Bengal but failed in siege of Ikadalamud fort.
➮ In 1358 second Bengal campaign against Sikandar Shah Ilyas who accepted Firoz’s suzerainty.
➮ Raja Gajpati of Jajnagar (Orissa) was attacked and Jagannath temple of Puri was sacked.
➮ In 1365 Nagarkot campaign was successful, 1300 Sanskrit manuscripts from Jawalamukhi temple were collected and got translated into Persian as the Dalai-i-Firoz Shahi (by Azizudin Khan).
➮ He had 180,000 slave set up Diwan-i-Bandagan (for slaves)
➮ Founded towns of Jaunpur (old name Manaich) named after Jauna Khan, Hisar Firoza, Fatehabad and Firozabad (Firoz Shah Kotla, the 5th city of Delhi).
➮ Topara and Meerut pillars of Ashoka were brought to Delhi.
➮ Diwan-i-Khairat, the charity bureau formed.
➮ Introduced new coins Adha (1/ 2 Jital) and Bikh (1/4th Jital).
➮ Firoz Shahi Madarsa was built at Firozabad.
➮ Banned unislamic practices e.g., prohibiting women to pray at graves of sufi saints.
➮ He repaired the Qutubaminar which had been struck by lightening.
➮ The chief architect of Firoz was Ghazi Shahna.
➮ He wrote Fautuhat-i-Firoz Shahi.
➮ He entertained great regard for the Caliph of Egypt and styled himself as his deputy.
➮ He revived the jagir system which had been abolished by Alauddin.

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