United Nations & Security Council
The United Nations (UN) is an international organization, whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. The United Nations Day is celebrated on the 24th of October each year. Presently, there are 193 member states of the United Nations.
There are six principal organs of the United Nations, they are 1. General Assembly 2. The Security Council 3. The Economic and Social Council 4. The Trusteeship Council 5. The International Court of Justice 6. The Secretariat
▸ It is also called the town meeting of the world.
▸ The General Assembly meets at least once a year and the session commences on the first Tuesday of September.
▸ It appoints the Secretary-General of the UN Secretariat on the recommendation of the Security Council.
▸ The presidency of the Assembly rotates each year among the five geographical groups of the countries viz Asia, African, Latin America, East European and West European and other states.
▸ Consists of all member states of the UN.
▸ Each member nation can send five delegates, but each nation has only one vote.
▸ The headquarters of the General Assembly is in New York (US).
▸ The main aim of the Security Council is the maintenance of international peace and security.
▸ The Security Council originally consisted of eleven members but increased to fifteen in 1965.
▸ Security Council comprises of five permanent members namely China, the UK, Russia, France, and the USA, and 10 non-permanent members, elected for a term of 2 years by a two-third majority of the General Assembly, five non-permanent members retire every year. Retiring members cannot be re-elected immediately.
▸ Permanent members have Veto Power, which can be cast against any decision supported by the majority of members.
▸ The headquarters of the Security Council is at New York (US).
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
▸ Its main aim is to promote social progress and better standards of life.
▸ ECOSOC comprises 54 members, 18 (one third) of whom are elected every year by the General Assembly of UN, to serve a 3-years term. The retiring members as well as the President are eligible for immediate re-elections. The headquarters of ECOSOC is at New York (US).
The Trusteeship Council
▸ The United Nations Trusteeship Council was established to help ensure that trust territories were administered in the best interests of their inhabitants and of international peace and security.
▸ Trusteeship Council was formed in 1945.
▸ The headquarters of the Trusteeship Council is at New York (US).
▸ The trusteeship council suspended operation on 1st November 1994. With the independence of Palau, the last remaining United Nations trust territory, on 1st October 1994.
The International Court of Justice (ICJ)
▸ The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations.
▸ Its main functions are to settle legal disputes submitted to it by states and to provide advisory opinions on legal questions submitted to it by only authorized international organs, agencies, and the UN General Assembly. The headquarters of ICJ is at Hague (Netherland).
▸ The ICJ was established in 1945.
▸ It consists of 15 judges. The judges of the court are elected by the General Assembly along with the Security Council for a 9-years term.
▸ The United Nations Secretariat is one of the principal organs of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization charged with the promotion of aiding states to collectively maintain international peace and security. It serves as a forum for member-states to discuss and resolve pressing issues in the international field through primarily diplomatic resources.
▸ The Secretariat is composed of a Secretary-General, assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide. The Secretary-General is appointed by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
▸ The Secretary-General of the UN is elected for 5-years and eligible for re-election, although, none so far has held office for more than two terms.