What is Khilafat Movement (1920)- Indian History notes

Last updated on December 7, 2023

What is Khilafat Movement

➮ In the first world war, Turkey, which had joined the Axis powers was defeated by the Allied powers. When the war ended the victorious Allied powers took a very stern attitude towards Turkey and finally dismembered the once-mighty Turkish ottoman empire.
➮ The sultan of Turkey who was also the Khalif was deposed.
➮ Much resentment was expressed by the Indian Muslims against the deposition of the Sultan of Turkey and the dismemberment of his empire.
➮ An all-India Khilafat Conference under the chairmanship of Gandhiji met in Delhi and resolved to withdraw all cooperation with the Government until the Khilafat demands were redeemed.
➮ An all-India Khilafat committee was also set up to organize mass support for the Muslim cause.
➮ On 17 October 1919, ‘Khilafat day’ was celebrated.
➮ Gandhiji suggested the khilafat committee to start the noncooperation movement. The committee accepted the suggestion.

The Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-21)
➮ It was the first mass-based on political movement under Gandhiji.
➮ Gandhiji launched this movement on 1 August 1920.
➮ It was based on three demands–
(i) The Khilafat issue.
(ii) Justice for Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
(iii) Issue of self Rule.
was convened at Calcutta in September 1920, to approve of the non-cooperation scheme.
➮ The Tilak Swaraj Fund was started to finance the non-cooperation movement.
➮ C. R. Das and Moti Lal Nehru gave up their legal practices.
➮ Subhash Chandra Bose resigns from the civil services.
➮ During this movement, the Prince of Wales visited India and was greeted with strikes and demonstrations.

Chauri-Chaura Incident (1922)
➮ at Chauri-Chaura in Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh on 5 February 1922.
➮ The mob burnt 22 policemen. Gandhiji was shocked by this incident.
➮ This incident compelled Gandhiji to withdraw from the non-cooperation movement on February 12, 1922. in order to isolate Mahatma Gandhi from the masses, the British authorities put him under arrest on March 13, 1922.

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